I direct a question to our current Ameer, and our future Khaleefah, soon Inshallah.
In the book The Islamic State, on the subject of the second pledge of Aqaba and what follows; (the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم “thought”) is mentioned in more than one occasion, while the subject is revelation (Wahi) from Allah and not the thinking of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.
For instance: He thought of migration, but migration is a revelation (Wahi) from Allah
I hope that you can explain what is meant by “thinking” here, Barak Allah feek.
From Ayman Alfjjary
Wa Alaikum us Salaam Wa Rahmatullah Wa Barakaatuhu
Before I directly answer the question regarding the “thinking” of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم about migration, I would like to take you back to the beginning of seeking the support (Nusra) up until the second pledge followed by the migration, so that the answer will be clear by the permission of Allah.
1. Khadijah (ra) died three years before the migration, Abu Talib died on the same year. In “Iyoon Al Athar” the following is mentioned: “… from Qatadah he said: Khadijah died in Makka three years before the Hijra (migration), she was the first to believe in the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, he said… then Khadijah bint Khuwailid and Abu Talib died in the same year. Successive calamities fell on the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم; the death of Khadijah and Abu Talib. Khadijah was a sincere supporter of Islam, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم found peace with her. He said, and Ziyad Al Bika’i said from Ibn Ishaq; that Khadijah and Abu Talib died in the same year, this was ten years after the Bi’tha (Prophet’s Revelation of the Message) and three years before his صلى الله عليه وسلم Hijra to Medina. Ibn Qutaibah mentioned that Khadijah died three days after Abu Talib. Al Baihaqi mentioned the same.” End.
2. Al-Waqidi narrated: “Khadijah died thirty five nights before Abu Talib; there are different narrations to this. When Abu Talib died, Qurayish were able to attack and harm the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم more than they wished for during the life of Abu Talib; even the lowest of the low of Qurayish threw dust on his صلى الله عليه وسلم head. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم entered his house; one of his daughters rushed to him and started to wash off the dust while crying. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was saying:
«لا تبك يَا بُنَيَّةُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ مَانِعٌ أَبَاكِ»
“Do not cry my daughter, Allah will protect your father” and between that he was saying:
«مَا نَالَتْ مِنِّي قُرَيْشٌ شَيْئًا أَكْرَهُهُ حَتَّى مَاتَ أَبُو طَالِبٍ»
“Quraiyish was not able to attack me with that which I hated until Abu Talib died”.
3. During these difficult circumstances, Allah سبحانه وتعالى honoured His Messenger with two great events: Al-Isra’ wal Mi’raj and permission for the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم to seek support (Nusra) from the people of power of the tribes in order to protect the Dawah and to establish the State.
Isra’ wa Mi’raj is not the subject of our discussion. As for seeking the Nusra, the author of “Iyoon al Atheer” and the people of Seera said: “The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم went out to Tai’f in the last days of Shawwal in the tenth year of the Bi’tha, he went out alone to Ta’if. Ibn Sa’d said: Zaid bin Haritha accompanied him. He صلى الله عليه وسلم was seeking Nusra from Thaqeef and protection from his people, and hoped that they will embrace what was revealed to him from Allah.
When he صلى الله عليه وسلم arrived at Ta’if he approached some individuals from Thaqeef who were their leaders and dignitaries at the time, they were three brothers: Abd Yalil, Mas’ood, and Habib Banu Amr bin Umair Bin Awf Bin U’qda Bin Ghaira Bin Awf Bin Thaqeef… they rejected him and turned their lowliest of people on him صلى الله عليه وسلم.” End.
4. Seeking of Nusra continued. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم used to present himself to the Arab tribes during the seasons, he called them to Allah and informed them that he is the sent Messenger, he asked them to believe in him and to protect him until he finish explaining to them what has been revealed to him by Allah.
He صلى الله عليه وسلم approached the tribe of Kinda in their homes; their leader was called Mulaih, he called them to Allah (Azza wa Jal). He presented himself to them, but they declined to accept. He approached the tribe of Kalb in their homes, he met with a sept called Banu Abdullah, he called them to Allah’s message, he presented himself to them, he said to them:
«يا بني عبد الله إن الله قد أحسن اسم أبيكم»
“O Bani Abdullah, Allah chose a beautiful name for your father”.
However they did not accept what he offered them.
He approached Bani Haneefa in their homes, he صلى الله عليه وسلم called them to Allah, He presented himself to them, none of the Arabs gave a worse response to him than them.
He approached Banu ‘Amir Bin Sa’sa’ah, he called them to Allah’s message and offered himself to them. They put a condition that they rule after the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم; but He صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
«الأمر لله يضعه حيث يشاء»
“Authority is a matter which belongs to Allah; Allah places it where He pleases.”
They rejected him and said that they were in no need for his offer.
The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم went out with Abu Bakr and Ali Bin Abu Talib (ra). Ali (ra) said that Abu Bakr proceeded in every good. He said, “From which tribe are you?” They said from Shaiban bin Tha’laba, Abu Bakr turned to the Prophet and said, “I sacrifice my mother and father for you, these are the best of their people and among them is Mafrooq Bin Amr.” He said, “Are you the brother of Quraiysh?” Abu Bakr said,“Did you hear that he is the Prophet of Allah, he is so?”
Mafrooq said: We heard of what he said; to what do you call us O brother of Qurayish?
The Prophet proceeded and said:
«أدعو إلى شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له وأني رسول الله وأن تؤووني وتنصروني فإن قريشا قد تظاهرت على أمر الله وكذبت رسله واستغنت بالباطل عن الحق والله هو الغنى الحميد»
“My call is to bear witness that there is no God but Allah, He is One and Has no Partners, and that I am the Messenger of Allah and that you protect me and give me support for Qurayish has rejected Allah’s matter and did not believe in His Messengers and preferred the falsehood over the truth; Allah is the Wealthy and Praiseworthy…”
The people said… we have a treaty with Chosros that we do not attack them and not shelter anyone who wants to harm them.
Kings loath that which you are calling us for; if you wish that we protect you from the side of the Arabs and give you support then we can do so. The Prophet said:
«ما أسأتم في الرد إذ فصحتم في الصدق وإن دين الله لن ينصره إلا من حاطه من جميع جوانبه»
“I did not receive a bad response from you, you were truthful, but whoever give the support for the Deen of Allah will protect it from all sides”
5. In “Iyoon Al-Atheer” and other Seera books: “Ibn Ishaq said when Allah wanted to make His Deen dominant and give glory to His Prophet and fulfil His promise to Him, the Prophet of Allah went out during the season where he met individuals from Al-Ansar, and a group from Al Khazraj. The Prophet said to them: «أَفَلا تَجْلِسُونَ أُكَلِّمُكُمْ؟» “Why don’t you sit down, and I will speak to you”. They said yes and they sat down with him. The Prophet invited them to Allah and presented Islam to them, when the Prophet finished, they said to each other: “Know surely this is the Prophet with whom the Jews are ever threatening us, let us be haste and be the first to join him.”
They accepted and embraced Islam and said to him: “We have left our community for no tribe is so divided by hatred and rancour as they are. Allah may cement out ties through you, so let if Allah unites them in it, no men will be dearer than you”, they returned back to their land as believers.” End.
The following year during the Hajj season in Makka, in the 12th year of the Revelation, 12 men from the people of Yathrib (Medina) met with the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم of Allah at Al-Aqaba where they gave him the first pledge of Al-Aqaba.
In “Hada’iq An-Noor wa Matali’ Al-Asrar Fi Seerat An-Nabi Al-Mukhtar”, “During the season of the 12th year, 12 men from Al-Ansar met Him صلى الله عليه وسلم and gave Him Bay’ah at Aqabah: Bay’at An-Nisaa'”.
Ahmad extracted in his Musnad from Ubadah Bin As-Samit that he said, “We were from those who witnessed the first Aqaba; we were 12 men; we gave Bay’ah to the Prophet of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم for Bay’at An-Nisaa’, this was before war was made obligatory, we gave pledge to:
«أَنْ لَا نُشْرِكَ بِاللهِ شَيْئًا، وَلَا نَسْرِقَ، وَلَا نَزْنِيَ، وَلَا نَقْتُلَ أَوْلَادَنَا، وَلَا نَأْتِيَ بِبُهْتَانٍ نَفْتَرِيهِ بَيْنَ أَيْدِينَا وَأَرْجُلِنَا، وَلَا نَعْصِيَهُ فِي مَعْرُوفٍ، فَإِنْ وَفَّيْتُمْ فَلَكُمُ الْجَنَّةُ، وَإِنْ غَشِيتُمْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا، فَأَمْرُكُمْ إِلَى اللهِ إِنْ شَاءَ عَذَّبَكُمْ، وَإِنْ شَاءَ غَفَرَ لَكُمْ»
“To associate none with Allah, and we should not steal, neither commit fornication nor adultery, nor kill our offspring, and that we should not slander our neighbours, nor disobey the Messenger of Allah. If you fulfilled this, Jannah would be yours, but if you committed any of those sins, it is for Allah to punish or forgive as He pleased.”
6. When they left, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم sent with them Mus’ab Bin Umair. He lodged with As’ad bin Zurara bin Udas, Abi Amama… ibn Ishaq said, “Ubaid Allah Bin Al Mugheera Bin Mu’yaqib and Abdullah Bin Abi Bakr Bin Muhammad Bin Amr Bin Hazm told us: That As’ad Bin Zurarah went out with Mus’ab bin Umair towards the house of Bani Abd Al-Ashhal and the house of Bani Zafar. Sa’d Bin Mu’az was the cousin of As’ad Bin Zurara. They entered a garden of Banu Zafar, they sat in the garden and were surrounded by men who embraced Islam. Sa’d Bin Mu’az, Usayd Bin Hudayr were the chiefs of their people then of Banu Al Ashhal. Allah opened their hearts to Islam and they embraced it. Sa’d headed to the meeting place of his people accompanied by Usayd Bin Hudayr, when he stopped by them he said: “O Banu Abd Al-Ashhal, how do you rate my authority amongst you?” They replied, “You are our chief, the most active in our interests, the best in judgement and the most fortunate in leadership.” He said, “I will not speak to a man or woman among you until you believe in Allah and His Messenger.” As a result, every man and woman among Banu Abd Al-Ashhal embraced Islam. As’ad and Mus’ab returned to the house of As’ad Bin Zurara; he stayed with him as a guest and he continued to call the people to Islam.
7. In the Seerah of Ibn Hisham and in “Hada’iq Al-Anwar” and the other Seerah books: “Mus’ab then returned to Makka with some of the Ansar who embraced Islam and managed to leave to the season in the thirteen year of the Bi’tha with pilgrims of their people who were polytheists until they arrived to Makka; they had an appointment with the Prophet at Aqaba during the middle day of the days of Tashreeq. When Allah wanted to bestow on them from His dignity and grant victory for His Prophet and glory to Islam and its people and humiliates polytheism and its people…Ka’ab said we travelled to Hajj we had promised to meet the Prophet at Aqaba during the middle day of the days of Tashreeq. He said: When we completed Hajj and it was the night of our appointment with the Prophet. He said we slept in that night with our people in our camps. When the third of the night had passed we crept out silently until we reached the mountainous path (Shu’ab) at Aqaba. We were seventy three men and two of our women were with us, we waited in the Shu’ab for the Prophet of Allah. He said: The Prophet of Allah spoke and recited from the Qur’an, he read a du’a to Allah and praised Islam, and then he صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
«أُبَايِعُكُمْ عَلَى أَنْ تَمْنَعُونِي مِمَّا تَمْنَعُونَ مِنْهُ نِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ»
“I invite your allegiance on the basis that you protect me as you would your women and children.”
He said: Al-Bara’ Bin Maroor took his hand to give the pledge and said, “Yes, by the One who sent you with the Haq (as a Prophet), we will protect you with that we protect our families, we give our allegiance, O Messenger of Allah, for we are men of war possessing arms which have been passed on from father to son.”
He said, while al-Bara’ was speaking Abu al-Haytham ibn al-Tayhan interrupted him and said, “O Messenger of Allah, we have ties with other men (meaning the Jews) and if we sever them perhaps when we have done that and Allah will have given you victory, you will return to your people and leave us?” The Messenger of Allah smiled and said:
«فَتَبَسَّمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ»، ثُمَّ قَالَ: «بَلْ الدَّمَ الدَّمَ، وَالْهَدْمَ الْهَدْمَ، أَنَا مِنْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ مِنِّي، أُحَارِبُ مَنْ حَارَبْتُمْ، وَأُسَالِمُ مَنْ سَالَمْتُمْ… »
“No, your blood is my blood, and what is sacred to you is sacred to me; I am of you and you are of me; I will fight against those who fight against you, and be at peace with those at peace with you.”
Ibn Ishaq said, “Ubada Bin Al Waleed Bin Ubada Bin As-Samit who was one of the representatives said: “The Prophet gave us pledge, the pledge of war. Ubada was from the 12 who gave him bay’ah in the first Aqaba, the Bay’ah of An-Nissa’:
«عَلَى السَّمْعِ وَالطَّاعَةِ، فِي عُسْرِنَا وَيُسْرِنَا وَمَنْشَطِنَا وَمَكْرَهِنَا، وَأَثَرَةٍ عَلَيْنَا، وَأَنْ لَا نُنَازِعَ الْأَمْرَ أَهْلَهُ، وَأَنْ نَقُولَ بِالْحَقِّ أَيْنَمَا كُنَّا، لَا نَخَافُ فِي اللَّهِ لَوْمَةَ لَائِمٍ… »
“We swore allegiance to Messenger of Allahصلى الله عليه وسلم to hear and obey; in time of difficulty and in prosperity, in hardship and in ease, to endure being discriminated against and not to dispute about rule with those in power, except in case of evident infidelity regarding which there is a proof from Allah. We swore allegiance to Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم to say what was right wherever we were, and not to fear from anyone’s reproach.”” End.
8. This is how the second Bay’ah of Aqaba took place, the Bay’ah of Nusra after Islam spread in Medina, then hijra (migration), then the establishment of the State. What is clear from all of this is that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was ordered to seek Nusra since the 10th year of Revelation, i.e. three years before the Bay’ah of Aqaba; the second Bay’ah of Aqaba was in the season of the 13th year of Revelation, i.e. that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم had the revelation to carry out the work to seek the Nusra. He was searching for the people of power of the tribes and was asking for their support. When he received the news about Medina from Mus’ab Bin Umair (ra) followed by the meeting with seventy three men and two women who gave the pledge to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم; the second Bay’ah of Aqaba, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم saw that Medina has the potential to give him support and to establish the state and to make Islam and the Muslims the highest. He صلى الله عليه وسلم thought of migrating to it because he was searching for the people of power to give him the support, he صلى الله عليه وسلم wanted to go to them and establish the rule for Islam.
Thinking of Hijra is a requirement of seeking the Nusra; as the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم used to approach tribes and ask for their support, it is the same as when he knew that Medina (al Munawara) was ready to give the Nusra and that the state can be established there. This is why his صلى الله عليه وسلم thinking of Hijra to Medina was not outside the requirements of seeking the Nusra which Allah has revealed to Him صلى الله عليه وسلم three years before the second pledge of Aqaba.
Even so the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم did not migrate to Medina except after Allah has revealed to him صلى الله عليه وسلم the place of Hijra and gave him صلى الله عليه وسلم permission to migrate.
As What is reported in Bukhari: “Ibn Shihab said: Urwa Bin Zubair told me, that A’isha (ra) the wife of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: I do not remember a time when my parents were not in a state of Islam. No day passed by without the Prophet of Allah visit us twice, in the opposite ends of the day, early morning and late morning. The Prophet said to the Muslims:«إِنِّي أُرِيتُ دَارَ هِجْرَتِكُمْ، ذَاتَ نَخْلٍ بَيْنَ لاَبَتَيْنِ» “I have been shown your migration place, a land of date palm trees, between two mountains.”
So, some people migrated to Medina, and most of those people who had previously migrated to the land of Abassynia, returned to Medina. Abu Bakr also prepared to leave for Medina, but Allah’s Messenger said to him:
«عَلَى رِسْلِكَ، فَإِنِّي أَرْجُو أَنْ يُؤْذَنَ لِي»
“Wait for a while, because I hope that I will be allowed to migrate also.” Abu Bakr said: ‘Do you indeed expect this? Let my father be sacrificed for you!’ The Prophet said: «نَعَمْ»… “Yes.”
Ibn Shihab said: “Urwa said, A’isha said :”One day, while we were sitting in Abu Bakr’s house at noon, someone said to Abu Bakr: ‘This is Allah’s Messenger with his head covered coming at a time at which he never used to visit us before.’ Abu Bakr said: ‘May my parents be sacrificed for him. By Allah he has not come at this hour except for a great necessity.'”
So Allah’s Messenger came and asked permission to enter, and he was allowed to enter. When he entered, he said to Abu Bakr: «أَخْرِجْ مَنْ عِنْدَكَ» “Tell everyone who is present with you to go away.” Abu Bakr replied:‘There are none but your family. May my father be sacrificed for you, O Allah’s Messenger!’ The Prophet said: «فَإِنِّي قَدْ أُذِنَ لِي فِي الخُرُوجِ» “I have been given permission to migrate.” Abu Bakr said: ‘Shall I accompany you, May my father be sacrificed for you, O Allah’s Messenger?’ Allah’s Messenger said: «نَعَمْ» “Yes.”
9. Therefore thinking of Hijra to Medina was after he صلى الله عليه وسلم received its news and it is a requirement of seeking Nusra which Allah سبحانه وتعالى allowed him to seek since the tenth year of Revelation. It is similar to the action of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم of going to Ta’if, Bani Shaiban or Bani Amir. But the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم did not translate his thinking into action except after Allah سبحانه وتعالى revealed to him صلى الله عليه وسلم the house of Hijra and gave him صلى الله عليه وسلم permission to leave.
«إِنِّي أُرِيتُ دَارَ هِجْرَتِكُمْ، ذَاتَ نَخْلٍ بَيْنَ لاَبَتَيْنِ» و «فَإِنِّي قَدْ أُذِنَ لِي فِي الخُرُوجِ»
“I have been shown your migration place, a land of date palm trees, between two mountains.” and “I have been given permission to migrate.” As what was reported in Bukhari from A’isha the mother of the Believers (ra).
I hope that the subject has become clear to you. Allah, the All Mighty, is the granter of success.
Ata Bin Khalil Abu Al-Rashtah
3rd Jumada I 1435 AH
4th March 2014 CE